Det sparer penge og CO2, når fjernvarmesektoren styrer temperaturen med data og lokale vejrudsigter i stedet for tegninger af ledningsnettet og mavefornemmelsen. Det viser forskningsprojekter, som CITIES er involveret i. Læs artiklen iDTU-magasinet DYNAMO
1, 7 mio. husstande i Danmark (ca. 64 pct.) bliver opvarmet med fjernvarme, der løber gennem 60.000 kilometer fjernvarmenet. Rejsen fra fjernvarmeværket til radiatorerne tager typisk flere timer, og derfor skal varmebehovet kunne forudsiges.
Man skal ikke skrue mere op for varmeproduktionen end nødvendigt, for det koster penge og er energispild, ligesom temperaturtabet i rørene er større ved højere temperaturer.
Samtidig skal vandet være tilstrækkelig varmt på de såkaldt kritiske punkter i udkanten af ledningsnettet. Så det er en videnskab at styre fjernvarmeproduktionen optimalt.
På DTU Compute arbejder CITIES centerleder professor Henrik Madsen og hans kolleger med datadrevet energi- og temperaturoptimering. Flere forskningsprojekter viser, at digitalisering forbedrer prognosen for varmebehovet markant og derigennem letter vejen til Danmarks 2030-klimamål.
The research in CITIES finally comes to an end after seven years of research. Now one of our partners ‘NREL’ points out in a report their support to CITIES with references to four scientific papers and the establishment of Center Denmark.
NREL – National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Renewable Energy Laboratory – operated by Alliance for Sustainable Energy for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
Energy System Integration Modeling, simulation and analysis of integrated energy system and evaluate the use of the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF).
The ESIF is the first US research facility that can conduct integrated megawatt-scale research, development, and demonstration of the components and strategies needed to safely and seamlessly integrate clean energy technologies into energy systems infrastructure and utility operations at the speed and scale required to meet national goals.
In order to achieve the ambitious goal of a fully renewable Danish energy system, an overhaul of the operation, monitoring and planning of the entire energy system is necessary.
By moving from the traditional view of the power, heating, cooling, water and other systems as completely separate, centralized and mostly radial, to recognizing the significant opportunities for efficiency and emission reduction brought about by allowing these systems to fully integrate and interact with one another.
Integration of previously distinct energy systems allows for flexibility throughout the system, so that society’s needs for energy can be met while considering the fluctuating nature of many renewable energy resources.
Integrated Information and Communications Technology (ICT) powered systems offer the possibility of intermediate conversion and storage of energy in forms including power [sub-daily], heat (including the district heating network) [daily] and gas [seasonal], providing an essential service to balance the variations in wind and other forms of renewable energy production and ensure the security of energy supply. The high density and diversity of energy use and networks within a city environment, coupled with the expressed desire to achieve sustainability within cities maims them an ideal framework for this research activity.
Publication: “Energy System Integration: Defining and Describing the Value Proposition”, M. O’Malley, B. Kroposki, B. Hannegan, H. Madsen, M. Andersson, W. D’haeseleer, M. McGranaghan, C. Dent, G. Strbac, S. Baskaran, M. Rinker, NREL Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-66616, June 2016, https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy16osti/66616.pdf
Demand response Additional results in the project focused on examining demand response (DR) as a way to increase flexibility in the operation of energy systems. DR proponents widely laud its prospective benefits, which include enabling higher penetrations of variable renewable generation at lower cost than alternative storage technologies, and improving economic efficiency.
In practice, DR from the commercial and residential sectors is largely an emerging, not a mature, resource, and its actual costs and benefits need to be studied to determine promising combinations of physical DR resource, enabling controls and communications, power system characteristics, regulatory environments, market structures, and business models.
The work during this project focused on the enablement of such analysis from the production cost modeling perspective. In particular, a bottom-up methodology for modeling load-shifting DR in production cost models was developed.
The resulting model is sufficiently detailed to reflect the physical characteristics and constraints of the underlying flexible load, and includes the possibility of capturing diurnal and seasonal variations in the resource.
Publication: “On the Inclusion of Energy- Shifting Demand Response in Production Cost Models: Methodology and a Case Study”, N. O’Connell, E. Hale, I. Doebber, J. Jorgenson, NREL Technical Report, NREL/TP-6A20-64465, July 2015, https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/64465.pdf
Transactive Energy The project also examined the concept of “Transactive Energy” (TE) and conducted significant work simulating transactive control in distribution systems. NREL, University of Colorado, South Dakota State and DTU performed their simulation using the Integrated Energy Systems Model (IESM) co-simulation platform.
The team implemented network-aware TE controls in the IESM co-simulation framework that manages distribution feeder voltages based on real-time optimal power flow. This is one part of a multi-timescale TE control approach that NREL is developing to reduce costs for both balancing power supply and demand and managing distribution feeder voltages.
This multi-timescale TE approach uses a price signal based on two components: an energy price based on wholesale prices and bids by participating DERs that adjusts on a 5-15 min market cycle, plus an incentive signal overlay for fast grid services, updated every 1-10s. For the TE Challenge, NREL simulated only the calculation of the incentive signals for voltage regulation services and used the time-of-use (TOU) price as the energy price.
More extensive analysis using a longer test period is required to determine appropriate levels of compensation for PV curtailment and reactive power support that will ensure fair compensation to houses that provide voltage regulation services.
Publication: “NIST Transactive Energy Modeling and Simulation Challenge Phase II Final Report” D. Holmberg, M. Burns, S. Bushby, A. Gopstein. T. McDermott, Y. Tang, Q. Huang, A. Pratt, M. Ruth, F. Ding, Y. Bichpuriya, N. Rajagopal, M. Ilic, R. Jaddivada, H. Neema, NIST Special Publication 1900-603, https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.1900-603.pdf
Integrated energy planning with variable renewable energy The research also examined the integration of a very large share of variable renewable energy sources into the energy system.
To do this, an integrated energy planning approach was used, including ice storage in the cooling sector, a smart charging option in the transport sector, and an excess capacity of reverse osmosis technology that was utilized in order to provide flexibility to the energy system. A unit commitment and economic dispatch tool (PLEXOS) was used, and the model was run with both 5 min and 1 h time resolutions.
The case study was carried out for a typical Caribbean island nation, based on data derived from measured data from Aruba. The results showed that 78.1% of the final electricity demand in 2020 was met by variable renewable energy sources, having 1.0% of curtailed energy in the energy system.
The total economic cost of the modelled energy system was similar to the current energy system, dominated by fossil fuel imports. The results are relevant to many populated islands and island nations.
Publication: “Integrated Energy Planning with a High Share of Variable Renewable Energy Sources for a Caribbean Island”, D. Dominkovic, G. Stark, B. Hodge, and A, Pederson, Energies 2018, 11(9), 2193, https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/11/9/2193
Center Denmark Finally, NREL points out the support for the establishment and design of Center Denmark, the new Danish national digitalization hub for data-intelligent and integrated energy systems.
NREL mentioned Center Denmark has been heavily influenced by the research at NREL and their research facility; Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF). See above.
Monday the 9th of November is CITIES final conference at DTU, Lyngby. The conference will be physical with streaming functionality in Zoom, so the IAB members and others can join online.
Tuesday the 10th of November will be an International Day – a partner conference with CITIES, the DiCyPs project (AAU), and the FED. All three projects will be represented. The day has been changed from DTU to EWII, Kokbjerg 30, 6000 Kolding, Denmark. The meeting will be physical with streaming functionality in Zoom.
We reserve the right to act upon COVID-19 participation restrictions.
If you want to show up physical at DTU or EWII and need to book tickets and/or hotel please note that the meeting could be changed to a virtual meeting at short notice. We recommend that attendees from abroad stay home and join us virtually.
Center Denmark, which is a national meeting point for green research, has moved to new premises and has new cohabitants. Not long ago, the center’s employees moved together with the cluster organization Energy Cluster Denmark, and now both SDU and DTU join the green research community, which is physically located in Port House in Fredericia.
When the Danish politicians this fall negotiate green tax reform, they should look at #tariffs. Nothing is stronger than a well-designed price signal when you want to promote flexible energy consumption, writes Henrik Madsen in this opinion in Teknologiens Mediehus GridTech.
Today, tariffs make up a large part of the Danish consumers’ electricity bills. The pure electricity price is approx. 15%, tariffs approx. 20% and the rest are energy taxes. If politicians want consumers to change electricity consumption, it is also necessary to look at tariffs when negotiating green tax reform so that they set up a sensible incentive structure that encourages people to change behaviour.
Denmark should have a system where the price is high when there are capacity problems, large grid losses and so on. And low when there are no problems in the network.
Although CITIES ends by the end of 2020 after seven years of research, CITIES’ research, findings and thoughts continue through other projects based on research in CITIES or inspired by CITIES. This applies the following projects.
Center Denmark – digital hub for smart energy systems
CITIES’ work with cloud platforms has been a kind of preparatory work for the establishment of Center Denmark in 2018, a new digital hub for smart energy systems.
Center Denmark will develop the best-in-class nationwide data platform for energy related data, that combined with forefront artificial intelligence identifies flexibilities on the demand side across the energy systems. Development of decision tools with real-time capabilities will enable their partners to develop and test new innovative business models and commercial services targeting smart grid features for industrial sector and private households.
The hub will – as an incubator environment – connect several Danish living labs in a data lake for scaling and establish new scalable micro-grid test and demonstration facilities.
The data lake contains a variety of energy-related data that are mainly collected from the living labs in the project, but also from other sources such as BBR (The Danish Buildings and Homes Register) and DMI (Danish Meteorological Institute).
Center Denmark will make the data platform a foundation for an international framework for research, representative and scalable tests and demonstrations as well as education.
Center Denmark has a close connection to all four technical universities in Denmark and a number of key players for a smart green transition.
Center Denmark is located in Kolding in the immediate vicinity of key national players in the energy field, such as Energinet, Ørsted, EWII, TREFOR and Dansk Fjernvarme. This location will help to ensure that Center Denmark becomes the hub of the new Energy Silicon Valley in the Triangle area between Vejle, Fredericia and Kolding. Center Denmark has 42 partners. The center is funded by Innovation Fund Denmark.
In 2020 The European Commission has decided to certify Center Denmark as a “Digital Innovation Hub”.
EU defines Digital Innovation Hubs as one-stop-shops that help companies to become more competitive with regard to their business/production processes, products or services using digital technologies.
FED is a Danish digitization project aimed at turning Danish power consumption flexible to enable utilization of excess power from wind turbines and solar cells. FED attempts to balance energy consumption with the production of sustainable green energy.
By balancing the energy system FED provides cost savings through decreased need for new energy investments. By balancing FED provides a reduction of CO2 emissions due to full utilization of the sustainable green energy available.
FED utilizes the latest digital technologies for reducing climate impact.
The project brings together Denmark’s foremost researchers, organizations, supply companies, software companies and a number of living labs that provide data for the project. The data is sent to the digital hub for smart energy systems Center Denmark’s data lake.
A living lab is a geographical area that is experiencing a challenge that the FED project might investigate. FED’s living labs gather data on building structures, constructional systems (CTS and others) and operational systems. Living labs send data from various sensors and monitoring systems into the data lake at Center Denmark. Some living labs have been equipped with extra sensor systems and actuators for control. All energy data will be made anonymous to the companies so they cannot identify who have provided the data.
FED has 24 partners. The project is funded by Innovation Fund Denmark.
Uni-lab.dk is a gathering point for living labs and test labs working with sustainable technologies. Uni-lab.dk is built upon Center Denmark, a national hub for the digitization of the Danish energy systems and closely related to FED, Flexible Energy Denmark, a Danish digitization project with several living labs.
Climate change calls for a strong, joint action from research, industries and from the citizens. Uni-lab.dk wants to bring together all living labs and test labs in Denmark in order to enhance their cooperation among each other and with Danish industry.
Uni-lab.dk can help universities in Denmark find a suitable lab where they can develop their next sustainable solutions related to their particular research field. Uni-lab.dk can also help the Danish companies find the right partners for the development, test and demonstration of their next-generation products.
The ambition to develop scalable solutions requires tests in representative settings. Living Labs are real-life test environments where new technologies, products and services can be tested in representative contexts, as in normal residential areas and industrial areas etc.
Uni-Lab.dk provides access to a wide range of test labs and Living Labs in Denmark. Uni-lab.dk interacts with the international UNILAB consortium, international partners, and with strategic international platforms and communities, e.g. with initiatives from the International Energy Agency, IEA.
HEATman / HEAT 4.0 – Digitally supported Smart District Heating
The objective of HEAT 4.0 is to develop an integrated flexible product platform, called HEATman, that enables District Heating (DH) companies to meet demands from customers and society in a cost-efficient way – these aim to improve environmental gains and increase the share of renewable energy sources, all of which are supported by an intelligent digitalization of the DH sector, and consequently enable the wide deployment in domestic market and the export to international market.
HEAT 4.0 transfers the state-of-the-art knowledge from the Strategic Research Centres 4DH, promoting low energy concepts, and CITIES, promoting smart cities and smart energy grid concepts. The existing results from them and other related projects are made into the products and enriched by additional applied research in DTU and AU. The aim hereof is to digitizing the DH sector through data intelligence, artificial intelligence and other cutting-edge technologies.
HEAT 4.0 combines a wide range of existing technical partner-solutions into a comprehensive and adaptable product platform – a cloud solution. HEATman is an integration platform that allows DH companies to adjust products from different providers to their own need. A major achievement is the ability to oversee the entire system and value chain.
The Danish / Swedish EU-supported project Smart Cities Accelerator ended February 28, 2020. Smart Cities Accelerator was based on CITIES research and findings and has tested the methodologies for energy efficiency improvements and energy renovations, digitization potential in the district heating network, energy communities, and legislation etc. The project used Open Innovation Calls as a tool to get in contact with small startups with great ideas and solutions for complicated energy problems like power peak shavings.
In the period 2016-2020 four universities (DTU, Copenhagen University, Lund University, Malmö University), five municipalities (Copenhagen, Høje-Taastrup, Malmö, Lund, and Båstad) together with three energy companies (Høje Taastrup Fjernvarme & Kraftringen and E.ON both Sweden) have worked cross-disciplinarily.
SCA was funded by Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak
IDASC – Intelligent data use in district heating in smart cities
The IDASC project aims to collect and disseminate experiences about opportunities surrounding the self-learning systems in district heating. As part of the project, IDASC will test different models for using more real-time data in district heating, meaning senior executives, decision-makers and politicians involved in district heating can be given the best possible conditions for assessing its potential. This includes technical advantages and economic savings, as well as its CO2 reduction potential.
The self-learning district heating system can optimize temperature and flow control, enable peak load reduction, improve link between sustainable energy sources and district heating supply, create significant reduction in costs and CO2 emissions, and reduce maintenance costs, as the system is continuously and automatically adjusted.
syn.ikia aims at achieving sustainable plus energy neighbourhoods with more than 100% energy savings, 90% renewable energy generation triggered, 100% GHG emission reduction, and 10% life cycle costs reduction, compared to nZEB levels. This will be achieved while ensuring high quality indoor environment and well-being.
Four real-life plus-energy demonstration cases tailored to the four different climatic zones and development projects of Europe will be developed and analysed within the syn.ikia project. The syn.ikia demo cases will demonstrate the functionality of the plus-energy neighbourhood concept for the rest of Europe.
The aim of the project is to increase the flexibility of energy networks, to test new business models and to support important stakeholders with tailor-made end-user interfaces. It will test a variety of solutions at four real demonstration sites located in Spain, Italy, France and Denmark. Additional laboratory testing will address safety issues.
Another special feature of ebalanceplus is its social and market orientation.
From the outset, the project will take into account people’s needs and concerns in terms of innovation and smart grids. This increases the chances of the market adopting technology.
The project work plan covers a 4-year period and involves 15 partners from 10 countries. All project activities and results are divided into 9 work packages, dealing with research, analysis, evaluation and exploitation to achieve future replicability.
TOP-UP studies how TOP-down initiated heat networks can play a central role in integrated regional energy systems, and investigates how these top-down actions can empower bottom-UP participation among local actors and sectors, as to achieve the regions ambitious energy targets.
TOP-UP incorporates expertise in modelling, automation, social sciences and practice to optimize regional energy systems. It focuses on the integration of heat and electricity networks, and identifies and fosters optimal levels of local actor/sector participation. TOP-UP aims to satisfy actors/sectors needs and preferences, and to optimize regional energy system performance.
TOP-UP develops tailored solutions for the Groningen (NL) and Copenhagen (DK) energy systems – which prioritize changes to their heat networks due to unique regional challenges – and studies how these solutions can be scaled and customized to other regions, making best use of local renewables and reducing the dependency on fossil fuels.
FLEXCoop aims at introducing a complete automated Demand Response framework and tool suite for residential electricity consumers.
The end-to-end interoperable solution will enable consumer flexibility to be valorised in front of a range of possible users in order to fulfil different services to the grid.
This framework will enable energy cooperatives to explore demand response business models and take the role of aggregators. The pilot participants are members of two energy cooperatives located in the Netherlands and in Spain.
FLEXCoop supports the democratisation of the energy system by enabling electricity consumers in households to actively support the energy transition and benefit from it through demand response.
Watch or rewatch CITIES webinar – August 12, 2020.
CITIES are pleased to announce that our partner – Innovationsnetværket Smart Energy – has made a great video from our webinar about digital and data-driven methods to optimize the operation of buildings and district energy systems.
Watch or rewatch CITIES webinar from August 12, 2020, where our speakers gave an overview of potentials and state-of-the-art technologies in the field.
We also share some of the presentations as PDF. See them below.
JOIN CITIES AGAIN! On 9-11. November 2020 CITIES hold our final conference. Please reserve the dates. Stay tuned and sign up, when we are ready with the program in a couple of weeks. It would be possible to follow our conference live on the internet.
Digital Hub Denmark writes, that researchers at DTU Compute are investigating ways of managing the energy systems of the future based on green, fluctuating sources of energy. The Danish government’s new plan to introduce a CO2 tax could turn seven years of research into reality.
“We’ve been used to regulating the demand for energy at the power plants, but we can’t do that with green energy sources that fluctuate with the weather. So, the entire energy system needs to be turned upside down. In future, the flexibility needs to be in the energy system itself and at the consumer end,” Henrik Madsen says.